How to Start and Stop AWS EC2 instance in AWS account using Shell script

Are you spending unnecessary money in AWS Cloud by keeping unused AWS EC2 instances in running states? Why not stop the AWS EC2 instance and only start when required by running a single Shell Script?

Multiple AWS accounts contain dozens of AWS EC2 instances that require some form of automation to stop or start these instances, and to achieve this, nothing could be better than running a shell script.

In this tutorial, you will learn step by step how to Start and Stop AWS EC2 instance in AWS account using Shell script.

Still interested? Let’s dive in!

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Table of Content

  1. What is Shell Scripting or Bash Scripting?
  2. What is AWS EC2 instance?
  3. Prerequisites
  4. Building a shell script to start and stop AWS EC2 instance
  5. Executing the Shell Script to Stop AWS EC2 instance
  6. Verifying the Stopped AWS EC2 instance
  7. Executing the Shell Script to Start AWS EC2 instance
  8. Verifying the Running AWS EC2 instance
  9. Conclusion

What is Shell Scripting or Bash Scripting?

Shell Script is a text file containing lists of commands executed on the terminal or shell in one go in sequential order. Shell Script performs various important tasks such as file manipulation, printing text, program execution.

Shell script includes various environmental variables, comments, conditions, pipe commands, functions, etc., to make it more dynamic.

When you execute a shell script or function, a command interpreter goes through the ASCII text line-by-line, loop-by-loop, test-by-test, and executes each statement as each line is reached from top to bottom.

What is AWS EC2 instance?

AWS EC2 stands for Amazon web service elastic compute cloud. AWS EC2 is simply a virtual server that gets launched in quick time, and you don’t need to worry about the hardware. After the AWS EC2 instance is launched, you can deploy highly scalable and available applications.

There are some important components in AWS EC2 instance such as:

AWS EC2 AMI

  • AWS EC2 contains preconfigured templates known as AMI ( Amazon Machine Image ) that include an operating system and software configurations that are highly required. Using these preconfigured templates you can launch as many AWS EC2 instances.

You can configure your own software’s and data you wish to have when an instance on top of Preconfigured templates.

Amazon Machine Image template
Amazon Machine Image template

AWS EC2 instance type

AWS EC2 contains various AWS EC2 instance types with different CPU and memory configurations such as t2.micro, t2.medium, etc.

AWS EC2 instance type
AWS EC2 instance type

Amazon EC2 key pairs

AWS EC2 instance allows you to log in to these launched instances with complete security by creating a Keypair where one of the keys is public that remains within the AWS account, and another is the private key that remains with the owner of the instance.

AWS EC2 EBS Storage

AWS EC2 allows you to add two kinds of storage that is ec2 instance store volumes which are temporary storage, and Elastic block storage (AWS EBS), the permanent storage.

AWS EC2 is launched with root device volume ( ec2 instance store volumes or AWS EBS ) that allows you to boot the machine.

AWS EC2 EBS Storage
AWS EC2 EBS Storage

AWS EC2 instance state

AWS EC2 service provides various states of a launched instance such as stopped, started, running, terminated. Once the instance is terminated, it cannot be restarted back.

AWS EC2 instance state
AWS EC2 instance state

Prerequisites

  1. AWS account to create ec2 instance. If you don’t have AWS account please create from AWS account or AWS Account
  2. Windows 7 or plus edition where you will execute the shell script.
  3. AWS CLI installed. To install AWS CLI click here.
  4. Git bash. Yo install Git bash click here
  5. Code editor for writing the shell script on windows machine such as visual studio code. To install visual studio click here.

Building a shell script to start and stop AWS EC2 instance

Now that you have a good idea about the AWS EC2 instance and shell script but let’s learn how to build a shell script to start and stop the AWS EC2 instances.

  • Create a folder of your windows machine at any location. Further under the same folder create a file named start-stop-ec2.sh and copy/paste the below code.
# /usr/bin/bash 

set -e  # set -e stops the execution of a script if a command or pipeline has an error

id=$1   # Provide the instance ID with the name of the script

# Checking if Instance ID provided is correct 

function check_ec2_instance_id () {
    
    if echo "$1" | grep -E '^i-[a-zA-Z0-9]{8,}' > /dev/null; then 
           echo "Correct Instance ID provided , thank you"
           return 0
    else 
          echo "Opps !! Incorrect Instance ID provided !!"
          return 1
    fi
}

# Function to Start the instance 

function ec2_start_instance ()   {
     aws ec2 start-instances --instance-ids $1 
}

# Function to Stop the instance 

function ec2_stop_instance ()   {
     aws ec2 stop-instances --instance-ids $1 
}

# Function to Check the Status of the instance

function ec2_check_status ()   {
     aws ec2 describe-instances --instance-ids $1 --query "Reservations[].Instances[].State.Name" --output text
}

# Main Function 

function main ()  {
     check_ec2_instance_id $1                # First it checks the Instance ID
     echo " Instance ID provided is $1"  # Prints the message
     echo "Checking the status of $1"    # Prints the message
     ec2_check_status $1
                 # Checks the Status of Instance
   
     status=$(ec2_check_status $id)     # It stores the status of Instance
     if [ "$status" = "running" ]; then     
         echo "I am stopping the instance now"
         ec2_stop_instance $1
         echo "Instance has been stopped successfully"
     else 
         echo "I am starting the instance now"
         ec2_start_instance $1
         echo "Instance has been Started successfully" 
     fi

}

main $1                                 # Actual Script starts from main function

Executing the Shell Script to Stop AWS EC2 instance

Previously you created the shell script to start and stop the AWS EC2 instance, which is great; but it is not doing much unless you run it. Let’s execute the shell script now.

  • Open the visual studio code and then open the location of file start-stop-ec2.sh.
Opening Shell script on visual studio code
Opening Shell script on visual studio code
  • Finally execute the shell script.
./start-stop-ec2.sh <Instance-ID>    # Provide the EC2 instance ID along with script
Executing the shell script to stop the AWS Ec2 instance
Executing the shell script to stop the AWS Ec2 instance

Verifying the Stopped AWS EC2 instance

Earlier in the previous section, the shell script ran successfully; let’s verify the if AWS EC2 instance has been stopped from running state in the AWS account.

  • Open your favorite web browser and navigate to the AWS Management Console and log in.
  • While in the Console, click on the search bar at the top, search for ‘EC2’, and click on the EC2 menu item and you should see the instance you specified in shell script has stopped now.
Viewing the stopped AWS EC2 instance
Viewing the stopped AWS EC2 instance

Executing the Shell Script to Start AWS EC2 instance

Now thaYouuccessfully stopped and verified the AWS EC2 instance in the AWS cloud. This time let’s restart the instance using the same script.

./start-stop-ec2.sh <Instance-ID>    # Provide the EC2 instance ID along with script
Executing the shell script to start the instance
Executing the shell script to start the instance

Verifying the Running AWS EC2 instance

Similarly, in this section, let’s verify the if AWS EC2 instance has been restarted successfully in the AWS account.

Viewing the running AWS EC2 instance
Viewing the running AWS EC2 instance

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned what is Amazon EC2 and learned how to start or stop AWS EC2 using shell script on AWS step by step. It is always a good practice to turn off your lights when you leave your home or room, similarly do for EC2 instances.

So which AWS EC2 instance are you planning to stop going further and save dollars?

How to Create an IAM user on an AWS account using shell script

Are you using the correct credentials and right permissions to log in to your AWS account? From a security point of view, it is essential to grant the right permissions to users and identities that access AWS accounts. That is where Identity and access management (AWS IAM) plays a vital role.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to create an IAM user on an AWS account using shell script step by step. Let’s get started.

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Table of Content

  1. What is Shell Scripting or Bash Scripting?
  2. What is AWS IAM or What is IAM in AWS ?
  3. AWS IAM Resources
  4. AWS IAM entities
  5. AWS IAM Principals
  6. AWS IAM Identities
  7. Prerequisites
  8. How to create IAM user in AWS manually
  9. How to create AWS IAM user using shell script in Amazon account
  10. Executing the Shell Script to Create AWS IAM user
  11. Verifying the Newly created IAM user in AWS
  12. Conclusion

What is Shell Scripting or Bash Scripting?

Shell Script is a text file containing lists of commands executed on the terminal or shell in one go in sequential order. Shell Script performs various important tasks such as file manipulation, printing text, program execution.

Shell script includes various environmental variables, comments, conditions, pipe commands, functions, etc., to make it more dynamic.

When you execute a shell script or function, a command interpreter goes through the ASCII text line-by-line, loop-by-loop, test-by-test, and executes each statement as each line is reached from top to bottom.

What is AWS IAM or What is IAM in AWS ?

AWS IAM stands for Amazon Managed service Identity and access management service that controls who can access AWS account and what resources in AWS account can be accessed.

When you create a new AWS account by default, you are the root user, have control over the entire AWS account, and can access everything. The Root user can log in to an AWS account using an email address and password you registered.

There are some important components in AWS IAM such as:

AWS IAM Resources

AWS IAM resources are the objects stored in IAM, such as user, role, policy, group, and identity provider.

AWS IAM Resources
AWS IAM Resources

AWS IAM entities

AWS IAM entities are those objects which can authenticate on AWS account, such as root user, IAM user, federated user, and assumed IAM roles.

AWS IAM entities
AWS IAM entities

AWS IAM Principals

AWS IAM Principals are the applications or users who use entities and work with AWS services. For example, Python AWS Boto3 or any person such as Robert.

AWS IAM Identities

AWS IAM Identities are the objects which identify themselves to another service such as IAM user “user1” accessing AWS EC2 instance. This shows that user1 shows its own identity that I have access to create an AWS EC2 instance. Examples of identity are group, users, and role.

AWS IAM Identities
AWS IAM Identities

Prerequisites

  1. AWS account to create ec2 instance. If you don’t have AWS account please create from AWS account or AWS Account
  2. Windows 7 or plus edition where you will execute the shell script.
  3. AWS CLI installed. To install AWS CLI click here.
  4. Git bash. Yo install Git bash click here
  5. Code editor for writing the shell script on windows machine such as visual studio code. To install visual studio click here.

How to create IAM user in AWS manually

Do you know root user is a shared account with all privileges,’ but it is not recommended to be used for any activity on an AWS account?

Instead of using a root user, a shared user, use an individual user and have various permissions accordingly.

IAM user can access a single AWS EC2 instance or multiple AWS S3 buckets or even attain admin access to gain complete access to AWS account.

  • Navigate to the Amazon Management console and and search for IAM.
  • Under AWS IAM page click on Add users button in IAM dashboard.
Adding a IAM user in AWS Cloud
Adding an IAM user in AWS Cloud
  • Now, provide the username, add a custom password and also select Programmatic access as shown below.
Providing the details to create a IAM user
Providing the details to create an IAM user
  • Click on Next permissions and choose Attach existing policies. This tutorial will grant Administrator access to the IAM user that you created previously.
Attaching IAM policy to IAM user in AWS
Attaching IAM policy to IAM users in AWS
  • For now skip tagging and click on create user. IAM user is created successfully . Now save the access key ID and Secret access key that will be used later in the article.
Downloading the AWS IAM user credentials for IAM user
Downloading the AWS IAM user credentials for IAM user

How to create AWS IAM user using shell script in Amazon account

Previously you learned how to create an IAM user manually within the Amazon Management console, but this section lets you create an AWS IAM user using a shell script in an Amazon account. Let’s quickly jump into and create the script.

  • Create a folder of your windows machine at any location. Further under the same folder create a file named create-iam-user.sh and copy/paste the below code.
#! /bin/bash
# Checking if access key is setup in your system 

if ! grep -q aws_access_key_id ~/.aws/config; then      # grep -q  Turns off Writing to standard output
   if ! grep -q aws_access_key_id ~/.aws/credentials; then 
      echo "AWS config not found or CLI is not installed"
      exit 1
    fi 
fi


# read command will prompt you to enter the name of IAM user you wish to create 

read -r -p "Enter the username to create": username

# Using AWS CLI Command create IAM user 

aws iam create-user --user-name "${username}" --output json

# Here we are creating access and secret keys and then using query and storing the values in credentials

credentials=$(aws iam create-access-key --user-name "${username}" --query 'AccessKey.[AccessKeyId,SecretAccessKey]'  --output text)

# cut command formats the output with correct coloumn.

access_key_id=$(echo ${credentials} | cut -d " " -f 1)
secret_access_key=$(echo ${credentials} | cut --complement -d " " -f 1)

# echo command will print on the screen 

echo "The Username "${username}" has been created"
echo "The access key ID  of "${username}" is $access_key_id "
echo "The Secret access key of "${username}" is $secret_access_key "

Executing the Shell Script to Create AWS IAM user

Previously you created the shell script to create the AWS IAM user, which is great, but it is not doing much unless you run it. Let’s execute the shell script now.

  • Open the visual studio code and then open the location of file create-iam-user.sh.
Opening Shell script on visual studio code
Opening Shell script on visual studio code
  • Finally execute the shell script.
./create-iam-user.sh
Executing the shell script to create the AWS IAM user
Executing the shell script to create the AWS IAM user

Verifying the Newly created IAM user in AWS

Earlier in the previous section, the shell script ran successfully; let’s verify the if IAM user has been created in the AWS account.

  • Open your favorite web browser and navigate to the AWS Management Console and log in.
  • While in the Console, click on the search bar at the top, search for ‘IAM’, and click on the IAM menu item and you should see the IAM user is creared.
Verifying the Newly created IAM user in AWS
Verifying the Newly created IAM user in AWS

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned how to create AWS IAM users using shell script on AWS step by step. With IAM, you get individual access to AWS account, and you can manage permissions accordingly.

Now that you have newly created IAM users in the AWS account, which AWS resource do you plan to create next using this?

How to Launch AWS S3 bucket using Shell Scripting.

Are you storing the data securely, scalable, highly available, and fault-tolerant? If not, consider using Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) in the AWS cloud.

This tutorial will teach you how to launch an AWS S3 bucket in an Amazon account using bash or shell scripting.

Let’s dive into it quickly.

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Table of Content

  1. What is Shell Script or Bash Script?
  2. What is the Amazon AWS S3 bucket?
  3. Prerequisites
  4. Building a shell script to create AWS S3 bucket in Amazon account
  5. Executing the Shell Script to Create AWS S3 bucket in Amazon Cloud
  6. Verifying the AWS S3 bucket in AWS account
  7. Conclusion

What is Shell Script or Bash Script?

Shell Script is a text file containing lists of commands executed on the terminal or shell in one go in sequential order. Shell Script performs various important tasks such as file manipulation, printing text, program execution.

Shell script includes various environmental variables, comments, conditions, pipe commands, functions, etc., to make it more dynamic.

When you execute a shell script or function, a command interpreter goes through the ASCII text line-by-line, loop-by-loop, test-by-test, and executes each statement as each line is reached from top to bottom.

What is the Amazon AWS S3 bucket?

AWS S3, why it is S3? The name itself tells that it’s a 3 word whose alphabet starts with “S.” The Full form of AWS S3 is a simple storage service. AWS S3 service helps in storing unlimited data safely and efficiently. Everything in the AWS S3 service is an object such as pdf files, zip files, text files, war files, anything. Some of the features of the AWS S3 bucket are below:

  • To store the data in AWS S3 bucket you will need to upload the data.
  • To keep your AWS S3 bucket secure addthe necessary permissions to IAM role or IAM user.
  • AWS S3 buckets have unique name globally that means there will be only 1 bucket throughout different accounts or any regions.
  • 100 buckets can be created in any AWS account, post that you need to raise a ticket to Amazon.
  • Owner of AWS S3 buckets is specific to AWS account only.
  • AWS S3 buckets are created region specific such as us-east-1 , us-east-2 , us-west-1 or us-west-2
  • AWS S3 bucket objects are created in AWS S3 in AWS console or using AWS S3 API service.
  • AWS S3 buckets can be publicly visible that means anybody on the internet can access it but is recommended to keep the public access blocked for all buckets unless very much required.

Prerequisites

  1. AWS account to create ec2 instance. If you don’t have AWS account please create from AWS account or AWS Account
  2. Windows 7 or plus edition where you will execute the shell script.
  3. AWS CLI installed. To install AWS CLI click here.
  4. Git bash. Yo install Git bash click here
  5. Code editor for writing the shell script on windows machine such as visual studio code. To install visual studio click here.

Building a shell script to create AWS S3 bucket in Amazon account

Now that you have a good idea about the AWS S3 bucket and shell script let’s learn how to build a shell script to create an AWS S3 bucket in an Amazon account.

  • Create a folder of your windows machine at any location. Further under the same folder create a file named create-s3.sh and copy/paste the below code.
#! /usr/bin/bash
# This Script will create S3 bucket and tag the bucket with appropriate name.

# To check if access key is setup in your system 


if ! grep aws_access_key_id ~/.aws/config; then
   if ! grep aws_access_key_id ~/.aws/credentials; then
   echo "AWS config not found or you don't have AWS CLI installed"
   exit 1
   fi
fi

# read command will prompt you to enter the name of bucket name you wish to create 


read -r -p  "Enter the name of the bucket:" bucketname

# Creating first function to create a bucket 

function createbucket()
   {
    aws s3api  create-bucket --bucket $bucketname --region us-east-2
   }

# Creating Second function to tag a bucket 

function tagbucket()    {
    
   aws s3api  put-bucket-tagging --bucket $bucketname --tagging 'TagSet=[{Key=Name,Value="'$bucketname'"}]'
}

# echo command will print on the screen 

echo "Creating the AWS S3 bucket and Tagging it !! "
echo ""
createbucket    # Calling the createbucket function  
tagbucket       # calling our tagbucket function
echo "AWS S3 bucket $bucketname created successfully"
echo "AWS S3 bucket $bucketname tagged successfully "

Executing the Shell Script to Create AWS S3 bucket in Amazon Cloud

Previously you created the shell script to create an AWS S3 bucket in Amazon Cloud, which is great, but it is not doing much unless you run it. Let’s execute the shell script now.

  • Open the visual studio code and then open the location of file create-s3.sh.
Opening Shell script on visual studio code
Opening Shell script on visual studio code
  • Finally execute the shell script.
./create-s3.sh
Executing the shell script to create AWS S3 bucket
Executing the shell script to create AWS S3 bucket

Verifying the AWS S3 bucket in AWS account

Earlier in the previous section, the shell script ran successfully; let’s verify the if AWS S3 bucket has been created in the AWS account.

  • Open your favorite web browser and navigate to the AWS Management Console and log in.
  • While in the Console, click on the search bar at the top, search for ‘S3’, and click on the S3 menu item and you should see the list of AWS S3 buckets and the bucket that you specified in shell script.
Viewing the AWS S3 bucket in AWS cloud
Viewing the AWS S3 bucket in AWS cloud
  • Also verify the tags that you applied in the AWS S3 bucket by navigating to proerties tab.
Viewing the AWS S3 bucket tags in AWS cloud
Viewing the AWS S3 bucket tags in the AWS cloud

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned how to set up Amazon AWS S3 using shell script on AWS step by step. Most of your phone and website data are stored on AWS S3.

Now that you have a newly created AWS S3 bucket, what do you plan to store in it?

The Ultimate Guide for Beginners on Bash Scripting / Shell Scripting step by step

Table of content

  1. What is Shell ?
  2. What is Bash ?
  3. What is Shell Scripting or Bash Scripting?
  4. How to create Shell scripts and execute it ?
  5. Basic fundamentals of Shell Scripting?
  6. Run bash scripts on Visual Studio
  7. Conclusion

What is Shell ?

Shell is a command line interpreter and a programming language, basically what ever you are executing on terminal of your Linux machine is a shell command. There are thousands of commands which are already inbuilt such as cat , cd , ls , kill , history or pwd. The shell provides variables, flow control constructs, scripts, and functions. It also allows you to pipe commands, substitute command , do conditional testing , iterations etc. Whatever scripts you run , commands you execute are executed on shell or commonly known as Unix Shell.

  • There are different types of Unix shell available:
    • Bourne shell (sh) which is present in /bin/sh or /usr/bin/sh
    • Korn shell (ksh) which is present in /bin/ksh or /usr/bin/ksh
    • Bourne Again shell (bash) which is present in /bin/bash or /usr/bin/bash
    • POSIX shell (sh)
    • C shell (csh)
    • TENEX/TOPS C shell (tcsh)

  • To check on which shell you’re
 echo $SHELL

What is Bash?

Bash is a Unix shell and also a command line interpreter. It is also known as Bourne again shell . This is improved version of Bourne shell that “sh”. This is present in almost all the operating system. It is a default login shell mostly in all Linux distributions. Also it is default login shell in Apple macOS and Solaris. Bash process shell commands. In bash you write all your commands in text format and execute commands. When bash executes any commands from other files then they can called as shell scripts.

It also contains keywords , variable , functions etc. just like sh shell . It is very much similar to Bourne shell (sh) .Latest version is bash-5.1 which was released in 2020-12-07.

To check the location of bash , you can use command.

echo $BASH

What is Shell Scripting or Bash Scripting?

Shell Script is simply a text of file with various or lists of commands that are executed even on terminal or shell one by one. But in order to make thing little easier and run together as a group and in quick time we write them in single file and run it.

Main tasks which are performed by shell scripts are : file manipulation , printing text , program execution. We can include various environmental variables in script that can be used at multiple places , run programs and perform various activities are known as wrapper scripts.

A good shell script will have comments, preceded by a pound sign or hash mark, #, describing the steps. Also we can include conditions or pipe some commands to make more creative scripts.

When we execute a shell script, or function, a command interpreter goes through the ASCII text line-by-line, loop-by-loop, test-by-test, and executes each statement as each line is reached from the top to the bottom.

How to create Shell scripts and execute it ?

Now we will create a very simple script and execute it.

  • Create a directory under /opt directory
mkdir script-demo
  • Create a file myscript.sh
touch myscript.sh
  • Edit the file
vi myscript.sh
  • Paste the code as shown in code snippet
#!/bin/bash
# This is a comment 
echo Hello World, its automateinfra.com here!
echo I am using $SHELL which is a default shell. 
  • Let us go through the code
    • #! is known as Shebang which is a syntax for a bash script. You can ignore this if you run your script by adding prefix bash . For example bash myscript.sh
    • Here #!/bin/bash or #!/usr/bin/bash declares a Bourne-Again (Bash) shell
    • Similarly for Bourne shell we can use #!/bin/sh or #!/usr/bin/sh declares a Bourne shell
    • # is a comment
    • echo is a command
  • Grant the execution permissions
chmod + x myscript.sh
  • Execute the script
./myscript.sh
  • Script has been executed successfully.

Basic fundamentals of Shell Scripting

  • Shell Scripts are case sensitive
  • To execute a function
function function-name 
{
  Commands
}
  • You can run your scripts with specific shells as
    • ksh myscript.sh
    • bash myscript.sh
    • csh myscript.sh
  • If you are running a script in a particular location you should provide absolute path and if you are running in same directory then use “./”
/home/ubuntu/myscript.sh  # Complete path

./myscript                # Run in same directory
  • Use of if loops
if [condition]
then 
   command
else
   command
fi
  • Use of for loops
for condition
do
   commands
done
  • To Create a variable we use “$” symbol and this substitutes the variable to a value.
a = 5
echo $a
  • The command-line arguments $1, $2, $3,…$9 are positional parameters, with $0 pointing to the actual command, program, shell script, or function and $1, $2, $3, …$9 as the arguments to the command
  • Let us know see Special variables
$0 is the filename of the current script.
$n These variables correspond to the arguments with which a script was invoked.
$# The number of arguments supplied to a script.
$* All the arguments are double quoted. If a script receives two arguments, $* is equivalent to $1 $2.
$@ All the arguments are individually double quoted. If a script receives two arguments, $@ is equivalent to $1 $2.
$? The exit status of the last command executed.
$$ The process number / process ID of the current shell.
$! The process number of the last background command.
Table 1.1

Run bash scripts on Visual Studio

  • From the dropdown menu of terminals select default shell
  • Then you will see Git Bash and click on it.
  • Now type a command to test if bash script works
hello automateinfra.com

Conclusion

You should now have a very sound knowledge of what is shell , what is Bash shell and Shell Scripting or Bash scripting. . Also we discussed how to work create a shell script and what are basic fundamentals or points one should know to getting started on bash scripting. Finally we ran bash script in windows machine on Microsoft’s Visual Studio Code.

This tutorial consists of all the practical’s which were done on our lab server with lots of hard work and efforts.

Please share the tutorial with everyone if you like it and hoping you get benefit out of this tutorial.